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Ultrasonic Sensors

An ultrasonic sensor is a sensor that converts an ultrasonic signal into another energy signal (usually an electrical signal). Ultrasonic waves are mechanical waves with a vibration frequency higher than 20 kHz. It has the characteristics of high frequency, short wavelength, small diffraction phenomenon, especially good directionality, and can be ray and directed propagation. Ultrasonic penetration of liquids and solids is great, especially in sunlight-opaque solids.

A commonly used ultrasonic sensor consists of a piezoelectric wafer that can emit both ultrasonic waves and ultrasonic waves. Small power ultrasound probes are used for detection. It has many different structures, which can be divided into straight probe (longitudinal wave), oblique probe (transverse wave), surface wave probe (surface wave), Lamb wave probe (Lamp wave), dual probe (one probe emission, one probe reception) .

The core of the ultrasonic probe is a piece of pressure ultrasonic sensor electric wafer in its plastic jacket or metal jacket. There are many kinds of materials constituting the wafer. The size of the wafer, such as diameter and thickness, is also different, so the performance of each probe is different, we must know its performance before use. The main performance indicators of ultrasonic sensors include:

A: Working frequency: it is the resonant frequency of the piezoelectric wafer. When the frequency of the alternating voltage applied to both ends thereof is equal to the resonant frequency of the wafer, the energy output is the largest and the sensitivity is also the highest.

B: Working temperature: since the Curie point of the piezoelectric material is generally high, especially the ultrasonic probe for diagnosis uses a small ultrasonic power, the operating temperature is relatively low, and it can work for a long time without fail. Medical ultrasound probes are relatively hot and require separate refrigeration equipment.

C: Sensitivity: it is primarily dependent on the fabrication of the wafer itself. The electromechanical coupling coefficient is large and the sensitivity is high; on the contrary, the sensitivity is low.

D: Directivity: it is well understood that this refers to the range of ultrasonic sensor detection.

Application:
Ultrasonic sensors can be used to detect liquid levels, detect transparent objects and materials, control tension and measure distance, mainly for packaging, bottle making, material handling, coal processing, plastic processing, and automotive industries. Ultrasonic sensors can be used for process monitoring to improve product quality, detect defects, determine presence and other aspects.

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